Molecular biology, Acide nucleic extraction, Gene expression, PCR, Quantitative PCR, Cloning, Sequencing (Sanger and NGS), Gene annotation, Comparative genomic...
Keywords: host/pathogen interactions, Symbiosis, dsDNA Viruses, Polydnavirus, Nudivirus, Baculovirus, Stress, Molecular biology, Evolution, Phylogeny.
My research activities aim to understand molecular and evolutionary mechanisms governing the relationships between organisms (host/pathogen interactions) and between organisms and their environment through various models. After a PhD aiming to understand how the grapevine can defend itself in response to various biotic and abiotic stresses, I am now interested in understanding relationship between insects and exogenous (baculovirus and nudivirus) or endogenous (polydnaviruses) viruses. Specifically I contribute to the acquisition of data on three thematics:
1. Bracovirus nature and origin.
Transcriptomic and proteomic approches revealed wasp/bracovirus symbiosis evolved from a nudivirus ancestor. All bracoviruses derived from the same nudivirus which have permanently integrated its genome within the genome of the ancestor of the baconid wasps (Microgastroid complex). Then, as many symbiotic organisms, the viral genome has undergone various processes of genome reduction but also acquisition and gene duplication that contributed to the tremendous diversity of parasitoid wasps. Although somewhat divergent in segment and gene content, comparative studies highlighted the homology and the genomic stability of the proviral integration site within wasp and of the machinery to produce viral particles.
2. Caracterization of new viruses from Arthropods.
Lacking sequence data to determine the most closely related nudivirus from which the wasp/bracovirus symbiosis has emerged, I screen various arthropods to highlight new viruses. These new data will be combined with those available in public databases to trace back arthropod virus phylogeny, in particular baculoviruses, nudiviruses, hytrosaviruses and the endogenous nudiviral elements formed by bracoviruses but also the newly identified NlENV. They may also be used to highlight macroevolutionary patterns in arthropod viruses. Other viruses with dsDNA genomes may also be incorporated in this study.
3. Virus genome adaptation to insect immunity.
I also participate, but to a lesser extent, to the study of baculovirus genome populations, especially baculoviruses infecting noctuid moths, to identify how they adapt to the environment defined by their host.
Figure: Cotesia congregata and its lepidopteran host, Manduca sexta. The Bracoviruses are produced within ovary specialized cells (calyx) of parasitoid wasps from the Braconidae family. Briefly, they are composed of dsDNA harboring virulence genes packaged within proteins of nudiviral origin. Upon oviposition, viral particles are injected along with eggs within caterpillar. They contribute to the wasp parasitism success by interfering with lepidopteran immune system and development (illustration source: Juline Herbinière & Annie Bézier)
Drezen JM, Bézier A, Lesorbe J, Huguet E, Cattolico L, Periquet G & Dupuy C (2006) The few virus-like genes of Cotesia congregata bracovirus (CcBV). Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 61: 110-122.
Bézier A, Herbinière J, Serbielle C, Lesobre J, Wincker P, Huguet E & Drezen JM (2008) Bracovirus gene products are highly divergent from insect proteins. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 67: 172-187.
Bézier A, Annheim M, Herbinière J, Wettrewald C, Gyapay G, Bernard-Samain S, Wincker P, Roditi I, Heller M, Belghazi M, Pfister-Wilhem R, Periquet G, Dupuy C, Huguet E, Volkoff A-N, Lanzrein B & Drezen JM (2009) Polydnaviruses of Braconid Wasps Derive from an Ancestral Nudivirus. Science 323: 926-930.
Serbielle C, Moreau S, Veillard F, Voldoire E, Bézier A, Mannucci MA, Volkoff AN, Drezen JM, Lalmanach G & Huguet E (2009) Identification of parasite-responsive cysteine proteases in Manduca sexta. Biological Chemistry 390: 493-502.
Bézier A, Herbinière J, Lanzrein B & Drezen JM (2009) Polydnavirus hidden face: The genes producing virus particles of parasitic wasps. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 101: 194-203.
Dupuy C, Periquet G, Bézier A & Drezen JM (2010) Les polydnavirus : des virus qui pratiquent le transfert de gènes depuis 100 millions d’années. Médecine/Sciences 1: 34-36.
Wetterwald C, Roth T, Kaeslin M, Annaheim M, Wespi G, Heller M, Mäser P, Roditi I, Pfister-Wilhelm R, Bézier A, Gyapay G, Drezen JM & Lanzrein B (2010) Identification of bracovirus particle proteins and analysis of their transcript levels at the stage of virion formation. Journal of General Virology 91: 2610-2619.
Dupuy C, Periquet G, Serbielle C, Bézier A, Louis F & Drezen JM (2011) Transfer of chromosomal Maverick to endogenous bracovirus in a parasitoid wasp. Genetica 139: 489-496.
Thézé J, Bézier A, Periquet G, Drezen JM & Hearniou EA (2011) Paleozoic origin od insect large dsDNA viruses. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA 108: 15931-15935.
Drezen JM, Herniou EA & Bézier A (2012) Evolutionary Progenitors of Bracoviruses. In Parasitoid Viruses Symbionts an Pathogens (Beckage NE & Drezen J-M Eds.) pp. 15-31.
Jancek S, Bézier A, Gayral P, Paillusson C, Kaiser L, Dupas S, Le Ru BP, Barbe V, Periquet G, Drezen JM & Herniou EA (2013) Adaptive Selection on Bracovirus Genomes Drives the Specialization of Cotesia Parasitoid Wasps. PLoS ONE 8: e64432.
Bézier A, Louis F, Jancek S, Périquet G, Thézé J, Gyapay G, Musset K, Lesobre J, Lenoble P, Dupuy C, Gundersen-Rindal D, Herniou EAH & Drezen JM (2013) Functional Endogenous Viral Elements (EVEs) in the genome of the parasitoid wasp Cotesia congregata: insights into the evolutionary dynamics of bracoviruses. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 368: 20130047.
Herniou EA, Huguet E, Thézé J, Bézier A, Periquet G & Drezen JM (2013) When parasitic wasps hijacked viruses : genomic and functional evolution of polydnaviruses. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B 368: 20130051.
Louis F, Bézier A, Periquet G, Ferras C, Drezen JM & Dupuy C (2013) Bracovirus genome of the parasitoid wasp Cotesia congregata is amplified within 13 replication units including sequences not packaged in particles. Journal of Virology 87: 9649-9660.
Gilbert C, Chateigner A, Ernenwein L, Barbe V, Bézier A, Herniou EA & Cordaux R (2014) Viruses as vectors of horizontal transfer of transposons between animals. Nature communications 5:3348.
Chevignon G, Thézé J, Cambier S, Poulain J, Da Silva C, Bézier A, Musset K, Moreau SJM, Drezen J-M & Huguet E (2014) Functional annotation of Cotesia congregata bracovirus: identification of the viral genes expressed in parasitized host immune tissues. Journal of Virology 88: 8795-8812.
Bézier A, Thézé J, Gavory F, Gaillard J, Poulain J, Drezen JM & Herniou EA (2015) The Genome of the Nucleopolyhedrosis-Causing Virus from Tipula oleracea Sheds New Light on the Nudiviridae Family. Journal of Virology 89: 3008-3025.
Chateigner A, Bézier A, Labrousse C, Jiolle D, Barbe V & Herniou EA (2015) Ultra Deep Sequencing of a Baculovirus Population Reveals Widespread Genomic Variations. Viruses 7: 3625-3646.
Pichon A, Bézier A, Urbach S, Aury J-M, Jouan V, Ravallec M, Guy J, Cousserans F, Thézé J, Gauthier J, Demettre E, Schmieder S, Wurmser F, Sibut V, Poirié M, Colinet D, da Silva C, Couloux A, Barbe V, Drezen J-M & Volkoff A-N (2015) Recurrent DNA virus domestication leading to different parasite virulence strategies. Science Advances 1: e1501150.
Drezen J-M, Gauthier J, Josse T, Bézier A, Herniou E & Huguet E (2016) Foreign DNA acquisition by invertabrate genomes. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology S0022-2011(16)30128-8.
Pichon A, Bézier A, Barbe V, Drezen J-M & Volkoff A-N (2016) Les guêpes parasites ont domestiqué des virus à plusieurs reprises au cours de leur évolution. Médecine/Sciences 32: 699-703.
Bézier A, Harichaux G, Musset K, Labas V & Herniou EA (2017) Qualitative proteomic analysis of Tipula oleracea nudivirus (ToNV) occlusion bodies. Published ahead of print: Journal of General Virology 98: 284-295.
Drezen J-M, Gauthier J, Josse T, Bézier A, Herniou EA & Huguet E (2017) Foreign DNA acquisition by invertebrate genomes. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology 147: 157-168.
Drezen J-M, Leobold M, Bézier A, Huguet E, Volkoff A-N & Herniou EA (2017) Endogenous viruses of parasitic wasps: variation on a common theme. Current Opinion in Virology 25: 41-48.